The Low-FODMAP Diet
- Nutrition in the management of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders: the evidence for the low FODMAP diet
- A study of Low FODMAP diet in IBS patients
- Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome as Well as Traditional Dietary Advice: A Randomized Controlled Trial
- A Diet Low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Improves Quality of Life and Reduces Activity Impairment in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Diarrhea
- A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and A Probiotic Restores Bifidobacterium Species: A Randomized Controlled Trial Author links open overlay panel
FODMAP is an acronym that describes 4 different sugars that are found in commonly consumed foods that include fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols 1.
Each of these sugars shares three major characteristics including poor absorption within the small intestine, rapid fermentation as a result of the length of the carbohydrate chains present in these sugars and a high level of osmotic activity due to the small size of these sugars.
These properties combined with the similar structure of these sugars play an important role in their ability to induce a number of gastrointestinal (GI) issues including bloating, gas, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and/or constipation 2.
These symptoms are commonly found in people with GI issues such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other related disorders, which explains why a low-FODMAP diet has often been recommended and found success in helping alleviate some of the symptoms these individuals experience with their respective disorders.
In this article, we will break down everything you need to know about the Low-FODMAP diet. What exactly it is, how the FODMAP plan works, a Low-FODMAP diet food chart, list, and recipes so that you can find relief!
Table of Contents
How Does a Low FODMAP Diet Work?
There are three phases of a low FODMAP diet plan:
- ELIMINATE → Completely remove all high FODMAP foods from your diet. The duration of this phase should be about 2-4 weeks.
- REINTRODUCE → Slowly add FODMAP foods back to your diet. The duration of this phase should be 6-8 weeks.
- MAINTENANCE → Work with your healthcare provider to decide which foods can be added back to your diet, depending upon what your results of phase 2 of the diet show.
By following these steps of the low FODMAP diet, individuals with SIBO, IBS or other GI disorders are able to normalize their daily food patterns to ensure that they receive an adequate supply of all nutrients.
Additionally, by reintroducing certain foods back into their diets, these individuals are better able to identify exactly which food items and groups are causing them to experience symptoms, and which they can tolerate with little to no problems.
Note: By carefully proceeding through the Low FODMAP diet phases and testing foods during the reintroduction phase most people will be able to narrow down the foods which they need to be more careful consuming in the future.
This does not mean you will have to restrict all higher FODMAPs forever but that you will figure out which highly fermentable carbohydrates you need to be careful with and limit. For example, one person may not tolerate fructose very well while another will have major issues with fructans.
It’s about learning what’s best for your own gut!
Importance of a Food Diary
It is strongly encouraged that when an individual begins the low FODMAP diet that they use a food diary to track their daily nutrition intake, as well as any environmental, emotional, or physical factors that may influence the severity of their symptoms.
Using a food diary at the beginning of the diet is a good way to find out what exactly you are eating and how that affects your GI symptoms. Sometimes, unless you do a diary for a few weeks it’s hard to remember what exactly you ate.
Although, this does not mean you have to continue with a food diary ongoing since over time you will learn which foods are best for you.
For example, when you discover that certain foods cause you more gas, flatulence, or diarrhea, you can immediately record your symptoms so that you can limit and be careful with that carbohydrate in the future.
Does Research Support the Low FODMAP Diet?
The first clinical study that evaluated the potential clinical benefits of a low FODMAP diet was published in 2008, and a number of subsequent studies have demonstrated how the low FODMAP diet shows a therapeutic response in IBS patients in particular.
In fact, over the last 10 years, IBS patients have shown a 52-76% improvement in their symptoms with the low FODMAP diet, which has supported the widespread adoption of this dietary approach for GI issues.
To date, approximately 400 clinical studies have been performed to assess the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet on patients with a wide range of GI disorders including IBS, ulcerative colitis (HC), SIBO and Crohn’s disease (CD).
The following chart describes some of the clinical studies that have been performed to study the effect of the low FODMAP diet on patients with GI disorders.
|Bohn et al. (2015)||4 weeks||50% symptom improvement in patients with IBS.|
|Eswaran et al. (2017)||4 weeks||11% therapeutic gain in patients with IBS-D. More significant improvements in reducing pain, bloating and frequency of bowel movements were seen.|
|Staudacher et al. (2017)||4 weeks||Investigated the low FODMAP diet with or without probiotic supplementation. Researchers found that patients significantly improved on the low FODMAP diet as compared to a sham diet.|
What GI Disorders Respond Best To A Low FODMAP Diet?
Although most of the clinical studies have focused on the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet with treating the symptoms of IBS patients, patients with the following GI issues have also shown clinical improvement when adopting this diet to their daily life.
- Functional diarrhea (chronic loose stool without abdominal pain)
- Abdominal bloating
- Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
- Celiac disease
- SIBO (60% of IBS patients have SIBO)
Low FODMAP Diet Food Chart
These foods are all low in FODMAPs and suitable for the elimination phase.
|FOOD TYPE||LOW FODMAP FOODS|
|Meat, Poultry, Eggs, Fish||Chicken, fish, eggs, pork, shellfish, turkey, beef, lamb, cold cuts|
|Dairy (low lactose)||Lactose-free dairy, half and half, lactose-free cream cheese, cheddar cheese, Colby cheese, parmesan cheese, swiss, sorbet, lactose-free yogurt, coconut yogurt|
|Non-Dairy Alternatives||Almond Milk, rice milk, nuts, nut butter, seeds, hemp milk|
|Wheat-Free Grains||Wheat-free Grains and Flours (with minimal fiber content) including bagels, breads, noodles, pasta, pretzels, waffles, tortillas, pancakes, quinoa, rice, cream of rice, cheerios, grits, oats, sourdough bread, soba noodles|
|Vegetables||Cucumbers, carrots, celery, eggplant, lettuce, leafy greens, pumpkin, potatoes, squash, yams, tomatoes, zucchini, bamboo shoots, bell peppers, bok choy, bean sprouts, collards, spaghetti squash, olives, green beans, rutabaga, spinach, ginger root, radishes, turnips, corn, mushrooms, kale|
|Fruits*limit to one serving*||Bananas, berries, cantaloupe, grapes, honeydew, grapefruit, kiwi, lemon, lime, orange, pineapple, rhubarb, passion fruit, kiwifruit, dragon fruit, papaya, clementine|
|Beverages||Water, small amounts of low FODMAP juice, coffee, tea, gin, vodka, wine, whiskey|
|Seasonings, Condiments, Spices||Basil, cilantro, lemongrass, parsley, mint, sage, thyme, homemade broth, chives, flaxseed, margarine, mayonnaise, olive oil, pepper, salt, sugar, mustard, vinegar, balsamic vinegar, pure maple syrup, vanilla, dark chocolate|
|Desserts||Any made with low FODMAP foods|
High FODMAP Foods To Avoid
These foods are higher in FODMAPs and should be avoided during the elimination phase.
|FOOD TYPE||HIGH FODMAP FOODS|
|Meats, Poultry, Eggs, Fish||Anything made with HFCS or high FODMAP ingredients such as sausage|
|Dairy||Cottage cheese, ice cream, creamy sauce, milk, soft cheeses, sour cream, whipped cream, evaporated milk, yogurt, custard, buttermilk, kefir, gelato|
|Non-Dairy Alternatives||Coconut cream, beans, hummus, pistachios, soy products, coconut milk, black-eyed peas, fava beans, kidney beans|
|Grains||Inulin, wheat, wheat flours, flour tortillas, rye, chicory root, barley, bran cereals, granola bars, wheat germ, semolina, spelt flour|
|Vegetables||Artichokes, garlic, onion, onion and garlic powder, asparagus, beets, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, fennel, okra, snow peas, sun-dried tomatoes, mushrooms, dried beans, butter beans|
|Fruits||Large amounts avocado, apples, apricots, dates, canned fruit, cherries, dried fruit, figs, guava, mango, nectarines, pears, peaches, persimmon, watermelon, plums, prunes, figs, grapefruit|
|Beverages||High FODMAP fruit and vegetable juices, rum, anything with HFCS, milk|
|Seasonings||HFCS, garlic, jams and jellies, onions, pickle, relish, artificial sweeteners like sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt, xylitol, agave, coconut|
|Desserts||Any made with High FODMAP|
Printable Low-FODMAP Diet PDF List
We have created a simple, Low FODMAP food list which can help you when starting on the FODMAP diet.
The list was made from the latest Low FODMAP foods research.
It was specifically designed for people with IBS and SIBO, but it’s an awesome Low-FODMAP list for anyone with GI issues who wants to feel better.
Low FODMAP Recipes
Here at SIBO Survivor, we created an awesome recipe book which is Low-FODMAP and SCD friendly for people with gut issues. You can check it out here.
We also have several recipes on the recipe page to check out.
Also, a number of bloggers and writers on the internet will actively try different recipes that follow the low FODMAP diet. Here are some well-known websites where you can find a variety of different recipes and ideas as you begin your transition to the low FODMAP diet.
|WEBSITE NAME||LOW FODMAP RECIPE(S) LINK|
|“For a Digestive Peace of Mind”Kate Scarlata RDN, FODMAP & IBS Expert||Low FODMAP Recipes|
|Rachel Pauls Food||Low FODMAP Recipes|
|A Saucy Kitchen||25 Low FODMAP Diet Dinner Recipes|
|A Little Bit Yummy||Low FODMAP Recipes|
|BBC Good Food||Low FODMAP Recipes|
|Meal Prep on Fleek||Eating with IBS – FODMAP Recipes|
|Cotter Crunch||Low FODMAP Friendly Gluten Free Meal Plan|
|My Gluten Free Kitchen||Low FODMAP Peanut Butter Oatmeal Chocolate Chip Cookies|
If you are struggling to manage your SIBO, IBS or other GI disorder-related symptoms, it may feel like a hopeless cause in trying to find the perfect dietary and supplement regimen that will bring you relief.
Don’t worry, there are a few different SIBO diets and diets for GI disorders that can help, including the FODMAP diet.
While the low FODMAP diet may not work for everyone, a significant number of patients with IBS, as well as other GI disorders, have consistently shown improvements in their GI symptoms following the implementation of the low FODMAP diet.
At the very least, this diet protocol provides you with a simple way to eliminate the foods from your diet that you discover to cause you the most discomfort and keep those that you tolerate well.